Kyiv: Center for Educational Literature, 2005. Popovych M.
Drawing on the tradition of Christian philosophical thought, he argued that the Law that Moses gave to only one, “old” people through the Grace and Truth that Jesus Christ brought to all mankind, makes all nations equal before God. Therefore, Russia, which was baptized by Vladimir, does not need any spiritual care from the “elders”. Hilarion’s word remained a model of preaching literature for a long time.
The chronicle-autobiography, which B. Rybakov considers as a kind of election program, is “Teaching Monomakh to his children.” It chronologically covers the period 1066 – 1117. The teaching was written for children – heirs of state power.
An example of epic poetry, combining chivalrous valor, patriotism, courage with written fixation, singing and partial oral recitation, was the story of the song “A Word about Igor’s Regiment”. Created between 1185 and 1187 by an unknown author, “Word” remains an unsurpassed masterpiece of domestic fiction.
Chronicles belong to the original monuments of ancient Ukrainian literature. This phenomenon is outstanding not only in the cultural progress of Kievan Rus, but also throughout medieval Europe. Academician of the XVIII century. G. Miller, impressed by the breadth of chronicle information and the level of its systematization, wrote that Nestor and his successors created a system of Russian history that is so complete that no nation can boast of such a treasure. Unlike the chronicles of most European countries, written in Latin, they are written in the native language. This is due to the extraordinary popularity of the chronicle genre in Russia. The tradition of chronicles developed in Kyiv in the 10th century, but later spread to almost all regions of Russia.
The most famous chronicle is the “Tale of Bygone Years” compiled around 1110 by the monk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, St. Nestor. The work has come down to us in the two most complete lists of the XV century: Ipatievsky and Lavrentievsky.
“The Tale of Bygone Years” illustrates the most essential features inherent in all ancient Ukrainian literature: religiosity, patriotism, moralizing character. It absorbed not only all the experience of historical knowledge accumulated in Russia in the previous era, but also the achievements of European historical thought, the tradition of Byzantine Christian culture.
A direct continuation of the “Tale” is the Kyiv Chronicle of the late twelfth century. Concluded by Abbot Moses in the Vydubychi monastery, it was a collection of chronicles written by different authors and for different princes. It is characteristic that the chronicle traditions of Chernihiv, Volodymyr Volynsky, and Halych were reflected in the Kyiv Arch.
Vysotsky S. The alphabet from St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv and some questions of the origin of the Cyrillic alphabet // Linguistics. – 1974. History of Ukrainian culture: In 5 volumes – / History of culture of the ancient population of Ukraine. – Vol. 1. – NAS of Ukraine. – Paton BE / head. ed. /. – K.: Nauk. opinion, 2001. Culturology: theory and history of culture. Teaching. way. 2nd edition, revised. and ext. / for ed. II Tyurmenko. – Kyiv: Center for Educational Literature, 2005. Popovych MV Essay on the history of culture of Ukraine. – K.: “ArtEk” 1998. Tolochko OP Tolochko PP Ukraine through the ages: In 15 volumes – Kievan Rus. – T. 4. – K.: Alternativa, 1998.
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Characteristic features of postmodernism. Abstract
Postmodernism as a paradigm of modern culture is a general direction of development of European culture, formed in the 70s of the twentieth century.
Postmodernism emerged as an intellectual movement designed to comprehend not economic but rather political and cultural problems. The phenomenon of postmodernism arises when the sphere of culture has declared its claims not only to a special but also to a dominant position among other social spheres.
Postmodernist sentiments are marked by disappointment in the ideals and values of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment with their belief in progress, the triumph of reason, the infinity of human possibilities. Common to different national variants of postmodernism can be considered its identification with the names of the “tired era” of “entropic” culture, marked by eschatological sentiments, aesthetic mutations, eclectic mixing of artistic languages.
The avant-garde focus on novelty is opposed here by the desire to involve in contemporary art the entire experience of world art culture by quoting it ironically. Reflection on the modernist concept of the world as chaos culminates in the experience of game mastery of this chaos, its transformation into a human culture environment. The longing for history shifts interest from the topic of “aesthetics and politics” to the problem of “aesthetics and history”.
Characteristic features of postmodernism are:
Orientation of postmodern culture to both the “mass” and the “elite” of society. Significant influence of art on non-artistic spheres of human activity (politics, religion, computer science, etc.). Stylistic pluralism. Extensive citation in his works of art of previous eras. Irony over the artistic tradition of past cultures. Using the technique of the game when creating works of art.
The most significant philosophical difference of postmodernism is the transition from classical anthropocentric humanism to modern universal humanism, the ecological dimension of which covers all living things – man, nature, the universe. Combined with the rejection of Eurocentrism and ethnocentrism, the shift of interest to issues specific to the East, Polynesia and Oceania, in part Africa and Latin America, such a departure testifies to the fruitfulness of anti-hierarchical ideas of cultural relativism, which affirms the diversity and diversity of self. creative potential of mankind.
The philosophical and aesthetic basis of postmodernism are the ideas of deconstruction of French poststructuralists and post-Freudians (Derrida), the language of the unconscious (Lacan), schizoanalysis (Deleuze, F. Gattari), as well as the concept of irony of the Italian semiotician W. Eco.
Postmodernism as a theory has acquired substantial substantiation in the works of T. Baudrillard “System of Things” (1969), TF Lyotard’s “Postmodern Meaning” (1979) and “Dispute” (1984), P. Sloteidyka “Magic Tree” (1985 ).
The term “postmodernism” originated during the First World War. It was used by R. Pannwitz in his work “The Crisis of European Culture” (1917). In 1984, in the Anthology of Spanish and Latin American Poetry, F. de Onis used this term to denote a reaction to modernism. In 1947, A. Toynbee in his work “Study of History” gave it a culturological meaning: fasting – symbolizes the end of Western domination in religion and culture. Cox uses the term “postmodern theology” in his early 1970s work on the problems of religion in Latin America.
Leading Western sociologists (Habermas, D. Bell) interpret postmodernism as a cultural result of neoconservatism, a symbol of post-industrial society, a symptom of profound transformations of socialism, expressed in total conformism, the ideas of the “end of history” ( Fukuyama), aesthetic eclecticism. In political culture, postmodernism means the development of various forms of post-utopian thought. In philosophy – the triumph of post-metaphysics, post-rationalism, post-empiricism.
In ethics – the post-humanism of the post-Puritan world, the moral ambivalence of the individual. Representatives of the exact sciences interpret postmodernism as a style of post-neoclassical scientific thinking. Psychologists see in it the symptoms of the panic state of society, the eschatological longing of the individual. Art critics consider postmodernism as a new artistic style, which differs from the neo-avant-garde by a return to reality, plot, harmony.
The term “postmodernism” gained popularity thanks to C. Jenkson (“Language of Postmodern Architecture” 1977). Jenkson noted that although the term was used in American literary criticism in the 1960s and 1970s to refer to ultra-modernist experiments, he himself gave it a fundamentally different meaning. Postmodernism means for Jenkson a departure from the extremism and nihilism of the neo-avant-garde, a partial return to tradition, an emphasis on the communicative role of architecture.
The specificity of postmodern aesthetics is related to the neoclassical interpretation of classical traditions. Distancing itself from classical aesthetics, postmodernism does not conflict with it, but seeks to draw it into its orbit on a new theoretical basis. The aesthetics of postmodernism has put forward a number of new propositions, namely: it has established a pluralistic aesthetic paradigm that causes the shaking and internal deformation of the categorical system and the conceptual apparatus of aesthetics.
Postmodern aesthetics is fundamentally anti-systematic, adogmatic, devoid of rigidity and closedness of conceptual constructions. Its symbol is a labyrinth. In the theory of deconstruction the classical, epistemological paradigm of representation of completeness of sense is rejected, the emphasis on a problem of absence of the first sense is shifted. The concept of the non-identity of the text, which provides for its destruction and reconstruction, disassembly and assembly at the same time, outlines a way out of linguocentrism in the corporeality, which acquires various aesthetic perspectives – vision (Deleuze, Gattari), libidinal pulsations (Lacan, Lyotard, temptation) (Kristeva).
This shift has led to the modification of the main aesthetic categories. A new view of beauty as an alloy of conceptual and moral feelings due to its intellectualization, caused by the concept of ecological and allegorical beauty, focus on the beauty of assonances and asymmetry, disharmonious integrity of the second order as an aesthetic norm of postmodernism, neo-hedonistic dominance,, a new figurativeness in art.
Interest in the horrible, ugly culminates in its gradual “taming” by aestheticization, which leads to the blurring of its characteristics and criteria. The sublime is replaced by the amazing, the tragic by the paradoxical. Central is the comic in its ironic guise: irony becomes a meaning-making principle of mosaic postmodern art.
Another feature of postmodern aesthetics – the ontological interpretation of art, which differs from the classical openness, focus on the unknown, uncertainty. Neoclassical ontology destroys the system of symbolic opposites, distances itself from binary oppositions: real – imaginary, original – secondary, natural – artificial, external – internal, superficial – deep, masculine – feminine, individual – collective, part – whole, East – West , ob ‘subject – subject.